Capital: Vienna
Population: 27 million
Government: Monarchy

Austria was an implaccable foe of the French Revolution due to both its innate conservatism and the fact that one of its princesses, Marie Antoinette, had been executed by the new rulers of France.

Emperor Francis I was also fearful that the myriad nationalities under his rule - Germans, Hungarians, Croats, Romanians, Slovaks, Serbs, Italians and Dutch - would follow France's lead and throw off Austrian rule.

Vienna could command a huge army, but its old ways of fighting were continually found wanting against France.

Major reforms brought initial success at Aspern-Essling in 1809 - Napoleon Bonaparte's first setback - but it wasn't until the 1813 Campaign in Germany that Austria was prepared enough to match the French.


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